By Lois N. Magner
I skimmed this publication for historical past info, and was once inspired that Magner's didn't interpret and decide old background on a latest technological know-how foundation, yet relatively offered and evaluated each one scientist as he handled the knowledge he had, answering the questions offered to him via the tradition during which he lived. Magner additionally did rather well explaining medical rules to me -- a slightly scientifically trained, yet non-science significant.
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Extra resources for A History of the Life Sciences, Revised and Expanded
Mixing these four eternal principles created new things, just as artists mix pigments to produce new colors. " But what produces the motions of the four elements and changes their local combinations? According to Empedocles these changes are due to two forces: Love and Strife. Love causes attraction, aggregation, and the creation of new worlds, but when Strife predominates, worlds are torn apart. Thus, in the Cosmic Cycle of Empedocles, the universe oscillates between stages of creation and destruction.
The first entities were, however, so incomplete and crudely made that arms wandered about without shoulders, faces without necks, and eyes were not attached to heads. In the second stage, parts began to unite in random combinations. Sometimes monstrosities were formed: man-faced oxen, ox-headed men, and sterile creatures that were part male and part female. " Still, there were many poorly constructed creatures that were unable to compete with those that had a better assortment of parts, and few creatures contained all the parts necessary to reproduce their own kind.
To protect these vital organs, the lungs were designed to serve as a buffer against the pulsation of the heart and the spleen was designed to absorb impurities from the liver. In a remarkable reversal of modern evolutionary theory, Plato suggests that other animal species were created by degeneration from man. Even woman was a secondary production, being created from the souls of habitually cowardly and criminal men. With more wit than compassion for the predecessors from whom he had borrowed so much, Plato wrote that "harmless but light-witted men, who studied the heavens but in their simplicity supposed that the surest evidence in these matters is that of the eye" were turned 30 Chapter 1 into birds.
A History of the Life Sciences, Revised and Expanded by Lois N. Magner