By Michael Quinten
A one-stop, concise consultant on deciding upon and measuring skinny movie thickness by means of optical methods.
This useful publication covers the legislation of electromagnetic radiation and interplay of sunshine with topic, in addition to the idea and perform of thickness dimension, and glossy functions. In so doing, it exhibits the functions and possibilities of optical thickness selection and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of size units in addition to their assessment methods.
Following an creation to the subject, bankruptcy 2 offers the fundamentals of the propagation of sunshine and different electromagnetic radiation in house and subject. the most subject of this ebook, the choice of the thickness of a layer in a layer stack by means of measuring the spectral reflectance or transmittance, is handled within the following 3 chapters. the colour of skinny layers is mentioned in bankruptcy 6. ultimately, in bankruptcy 7, the writer discusses a number of business functions of the layer thickness dimension, together with high-reflection and anti-reflection coatings, photolithographic structuring of semiconductors, silicon on insulator, obvious conductive movies, oxides and polymers, skinny movie photovoltaics, and seriously doped silicon.
Aimed at business and educational researchers, engineers, builders and brands curious about all components of optical layer and skinny optical movie size and metrology, procedure keep watch over, real-time tracking, and applications.
Chapter 1 creation (pages 1–5):
Chapter 2 Propagation of sunshine and different Electromagnetic Waves (pages 7–57):
Chapter three Spectral Reflectance and Transmittance of a Layer Stack (pages 59–80):
Chapter four The Optical dimension (pages 81–119):
Chapter five Thin?Film Thickness choice (pages 121–140):
Chapter 6 the colour of skinny motion pictures (pages 141–147):
Chapter 7 functions (pages 149–185):
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Extra resources for A Practical Guide to Optical Metrology for Thin Films
J33 j 2 Propagation of Light and Other Electromagnetic Waves 34 By comparing the blazed grating with a lamellar grating, we ﬁnd that if g is the grating constant of the blazed grating, the corresponding grating constant glamellar is glamellar ¼ g/tan(B). 3 Holographic Gratings For holographic reﬂection gratings, a polished highly reﬂecting support gets covered with a photoresist. The grating is formed by illuminating the photosensitive material with the interference pattern of two crossed laser beams of same wavelength.
B) Complex refractive index of Al. (c) Reflectance of an aluminum mirror. Optical constants from Ref. . 28 (a) Dielectric function of Au. (b) Complex refractive index of Au. (c) Reflectance of a gold mirror. Optical constants from Ref. . 7 Dielectric Function and Refractive Index as a mirror material in the infrared region because its reﬂectance amounts always to R > 97% in the infrared, approaching almost 100%. The steep increase at 520 nm is caused by the interband transitions that reach far into the visible spectral region.
7 Dielectric Function and Refractive Index In the simpler model of Kim , the damping ck of a harmonic oscillator vk is assumed to be frequency dependent: xKim ðvÞ ¼ v2P;k v2k Àv2 Àivck ðvÞ ð2:99Þ with ! 1 vÀvk 2 ck ðvÞ ¼ ck exp À : ck 1 þ s2k ð2:100Þ The parameter s k ! 0 is used to switch between a Gaussian or a Lorentzian shape of ck(v). For s k ¼ 0, a pure Gaussian shape is obtained, and for s k > 5 a Lorentzian shape is obtained. In metals, semimetals, and semiconductors, an important contribution to the dielectric function stems from unbound charge carriers, the so-called free electrons.
A Practical Guide to Optical Metrology for Thin Films by Michael Quinten