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By Arthur Cox

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Energy is plotted upwards and the probability of occupation is in the horizontal direction. It may be seen that if the temperature is high enough the probability of occupation in the conduction band is different from zero. Hence certain states at the bottom of the conduction band will be occupied, and because a partially filled band permits conduction we come to the conclusion that at high enough temperature an insulator will conduct electricity. The amount of conduction will depend on the height of the energy gap.

The operation at point b would be very narrow band firstly because a small change in frequency results in a much larger change in phase velocity, and secondly because the stop band starts not far above Wb. MICROWAVE TUBES gun electron beam (b) out in (a) I 31 t fI -- 7 I I B slow wave ~"" In Schematic drawing of travelling wave tubes; (a) O-type, (b) M-type I \ A slow wave structure ou. fn collector out 0B (a) tI f I I. 11 in out I. 12 (a) Schematic representation of a slow wave structure capable to support a backward wave.

C. input power). (1) If the collector were part of the microwave circuit then its size would be limited by considerations of the capacitance introduced but being separate there is no limitation on size and so can more easily absorb the heat due to the impact of the electron beam. c. power consumption can be reduced as well. c. power consumed is equal to the product of voltage and current in the power supply. The current is determined by the electron gun, but one can have control over the voltage simply by putting in a power supply between cathode and collector in Fig.

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A system of optical design by Arthur Cox

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