By Rik Brydson
The publication is worried with the speculation, historical past, and sensible use of transmission electron microscopes with lens correctors that could right the results of round aberration. The e-book additionally covers a comparability with aberration correction within the TEM and purposes of analytical aberration corrected STEM in fabrics technological know-how and biology. This ebook is vital for microscopists eager about nanoscale and fabrics microanalysis specially these utilizing scanning transmission electron microscopy, and comparable analytical innovations similar to electron diffraction x-ray spectrometry (EDXS) and electron strength loss spectroscopy (EELS).
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Extra resources for Aberration-corrected Analytical Electron Microscopy (RMS - Royal Microscopical Society)
They can be used to correct or compensate for aberrations in the main rotationally symmetric electromagnetic lenses (see Chapter 4). 3) in which the magnitude of F, |F| = |B|e|v| sin θ. Where θ is the angle between B and v. Hence if a component of v is parallel to B, |F| = 0, but any perpendicular component will result in a force on the electron, which will describe a circular motion about B. The resulting path of the electron will describe a helix. If the cylindrical lens has an homogeneous ﬁeld then the electrons which pass exactly through the centre will experience no force but those some distance off the main axis will spiral towards INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRON OPTICS 27 the centre and then out again, leading to a focusing action of the lens.
Beam damage of the specimen can occur by two dominant mechanisms – knock-on damage in which an atom or ion is displaced from its normal site, and ionisation damage (in some contexts called radiolysis) in which electrons are perturbed leading to chemical and then possibly structural changes. Both mechanisms are discussed by Williams and Carter (2009) and also Egerton et al. (2004), who give a chart showing the ranges of primary beam energy which are likely to cause displacement damage for specific atomic species.
In some cases, a sample in the TEM also behaves like an aperture and fringes (Fresnel fringes) appear at sharp edges on the image of the sample and degrade the resolution. The sum over all the different spherical waves – the Fresnel integral – can be treated in a graphical way using an amplitude-phase diagram in which the amplitude is represented by a distance in the xy plane and the phase is represented INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRON OPTICS 23 by angle. By plotting how the overall intensity changes as the waves are summed, it is possible, for example, to illustrate how the intensity changes in the vicinity of a sharp edge in the specimen.
Aberration-corrected Analytical Electron Microscopy (RMS - Royal Microscopical Society) by Rik Brydson