By Kevin P. Spicer
In recent times, the masks of tolerant, secular, multicultural Europe has been shattered through new varieties of antisemitic crime. although lots of the perpetrators don't profess Christianity, antisemitism has flourished in Christian Europe. during this booklet, 13 students of ecu heritage, Jewish experiences, and Christian theology learn antisemitism's insidious function in Europe's highbrow and political lifestyles. The essays demonstrate that annihilative antisemitic proposal used to be no longer constrained to Germany, yet might be present in the theology and liturgical perform of so much of Europe's Christian church buildings. They dismantle the declare of a contrast among Christian anti-Judaism and neo-pagan antisemitism and exhibit that, on the center of Christianity, hatred for Jews overwhelmingly shaped the milieu of 20th-century Europe.
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Extra resources for Antisemitism, Christian Ambivalence, and the Holocaust
This narrative, augmented by the sense of gratitude displayed by many Danish Jews for the rejection of antisemitism, has helped to view Danish Jews as the exceptional case of the European-Jewish experience. Danish Lutheran clergy played a key role in these rescue activities. Pastors warned Jews of the imminent danger of deportation, o√ered them hiding places, and facilitated their escape to Sweden. The pastor of Trinitatis Church in central Copenhagen even received the Torah scrolls from the nearby synagogue in Krystalgade and hid them in a secret chamber in his church.
Augustine never completely excluded the possibility of salvation outside the Church. Rather, he emphasized the value of faith and love present outside the Church. He claimed that Jesus Christ revealed himself in many di√erent ways to many di√erent people and nations, even before his coming into this world. Czuj maintained that while God never begrudged anyone grace, God did refuse those who were unworthy by their own actions. Nevertheless, he argued that since Jews lived among Christians, they, in turn, could access the visible means of salvation present in the Church.
However, a few Polish theologians o√ered contrasting interpretations. For example, in his article, ‘‘Extra Ecclesiam salus non est in the Light of the Teaching of St. Augustine,’’ Father Jan Czuj examined God’s salviﬁc acts in St. Augustine’s writings. According to Czuj, salvation outside the Church was possible if the visible means were unavailable. O≈cial doctrine had actually contained this novel understanding since the Council of Trent. Czuj argued that St. Augustine never completely excluded the possibility of salvation outside the Church.
Antisemitism, Christian Ambivalence, and the Holocaust by Kevin P. Spicer